How Allergenic Extracts Are Made

Allergenic extracts are biological products used to diagnose and treat allergic patients. Knowledge about how allergenic extracts are manufactured is critical for the clinician to select appropriate extracts for the intended purpose.

Various steps are involved in the production of allergenic extracts. These steps include the proper selection and procurement of allergenic raw materials, the manufacturing processes utilized, the quality procedures in place to assure that the extracts have a consistent composition and potency, and the measures used to support particular expiration dates.

The allergens utilized to produce extracts can be classified as natural or recombinant. Natural allergens have been used for many years and will continue to be used for the time to come because of the varying limitations regarding the production and use of recombinant allergens.

Most catalogs of allergen extracts list pollen, mites, fungi (“molds”), insects, epithelia (mammalian allergens), hymenoptera venoms, foods, and “others”. Therefore, the procurement of the raw materials to produce those allergenic extracts varies, depending on the product. Natural allergenic raw materials are obtained from the outdoor environment (i.e. pollen), from laboratory cultures (i.e mites and fungi), animal groomers (i.e. epithelia), and supermarkets (foods).

A series of articles, entitled “How Allergen Extracts Are Made – From Raw Materials to Final Extracts”, which address each type of product individually, was prepared to inform the clinician and other interested professionals about the topic.

Contact us to obtain copies of these articles.

Storage of Allergenic Raw Materials

Environmental factors are responsible for the deterioration of the raw materials used to manufacture allergenic extracts. Among these factors, moisture content and storage temperature of the materials play a combined role, responsible for the allergenic stability of raw materials. The proper storage of allergenic raw materials is critical to guarantee a particular shelf-life.

We performed a study to examine the stability of several allergenic raw materials over several years. The materials, stored under various moisture and temperature conditions, were tested at different time-intervals. The results of this study indicate that for maximum shelf-life, raw materials should be stored under conditions of low moisture (<8%) and temperature (<0oC). 

Production of Pollen Extracts: How Pollen Purity is Evaluated

After the pollen used for the production of allergenic extracts has been collected, their identity and purity must be evaluated. Microscopic analysis is performed for this purpose. Currently, pollen purity assessments include counting and identifying biological components contaminating the pollen. However, this method of evaluating pollen purity does not consider either the potential clinical relevance of specific contaminants or their relative volume compared to that of the pollen in the final sample. While the potential clinical relevance of many pollen contaminants is unknown, volumetric counting instead of particle counting could provide a better estimation of the amount of foreign biological materials contained in pollen. However, standardized and approved methods to perform this evaluation are lacking.
For the purpose of microscopic pollen identity and purity evaluations, samples are stained with a solution and examined under various magnifications. Microscopic pollen analysis also can provide valuable information regarding pollen quality for the production of pollen extracts. For example, the presence of a large number of plant parts and a variety of miscellaneous fungal spores generally indicates that the pollen is not sufficiently clean, and that additional activities to remove biological contaminants are necessary. To the contrary, the presence of large amounts of one single spore type, hyphae, and/or sporulating structure indicates that fungi have actively infested the pollen for a period. This pollen should be discarded for the production of pollen extracts.

Qualified individuals should perform the pollen identification and purity assessments in appropriate in-house laboratories at allergen manufacturing companies. However, programs to train individuals and certify such laboratories are currently lacking.
It is essential to perform all activities associated with pollen used for the production of pollen extracts, including identification and purity assessments, in dedicated areas of allergen manufacturing companies where other types of raw materials are not present. Otherwise, cross-contamination of pollen used to produce pollen extracts with other allergenic products will likely occur.

Pollen Collection to Produce Allergen Extracts

Proper pollen collection is essential to produce allergen extracts. Pollen collection is tedious and requires a high level of specialization.
A few large pollen collection entities own land to cultivate the desired plants for pollen collection, under conditions that minimize exposure to man-made pollutants. However, this is an emerging strategy, which often does not allow for the collection of sufficient amount of pollen necessary for the production of pollen allergen extracts. Many small family-owned pollen collection entities also obtain pollen for the production of pollen extracts.

There are three main methods used to collect pollen from wind-pollinated plants; first, the water-set; second, the vacuum; and third, the cut/dry/sieve. Many pollen species can be collected using either method.

The three collection methods have advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage of the water-set method is that it results in very clean pollen. To the contrary, it is very labor intensive and often the resulting pollen is impacted by high moisture and subsequent microbial growth.

The main advantage of the vacuum and the cut/dry/sieve methods is that are relatively simple to perform. Their main caveat is that the resulting pollen often contains high levels of biological contaminants.

Following collection, pollen is dried to reduce moisture content and prevent microbial growth. Subsequently, the naturally present plant parts, fungal spores, insect fragments, and foreign pollen grains are removed. The two primary methods to clean pollen are mechanical gradation sieving and air classification, both described below.
Mechanical gradation sieving is the simplest and most widely used method because such sieving with various micron-sized meshes can remove biologic contaminants. The air classification method can separate particles that differ in both weight and size, resulting in very clean pollen for the production of pollen extracts. Though, air classification machines are expensive and often disrupt pollen, making its quality difficult to assess because some cytoplasmic material containing allergens can be lost during the cleaning process.

Proper understanding regarding pollen collection to produce allergen extracts is essential for allergen manufacturers and clinicians who use pollen allergen extracts.

Evaluation of pollen purity to prepare allergen extracts

Several factors are responsible for the composition, consistency, and stability of the allergen extracts used to diagnose and treat allergic diseases. The quality of the raw materials used to produce those extracts should be maximized. Proper evaluation of pollen purity to prepare allergen extracts is critical to assure the quality of the final product.

Pollen is a unique raw material because is exposed to the outdoor environment before and during collection. Therefore, pollen can be potentially impacted by airborne components present outdoors. They include both ubiquitous biological and chemical contaminants. The potential impact of chemical contaminants in pollen is not discussed in this post.

The biological components that typically contaminate pollen include plant parts, foreign pollen, fungal structures, and other biological agents. The pollen collected for the production of allergen extracts must meet particular purity specifications.

Specifications for the maximum allowed concentrations of biological contaminants in pollen are typically internally proposed by allergen manufacturing companies based on the likelihood of achieving a particular purity level after cleaning pollen. These specifications are not based on any potential health effects upon exposure to the contaminants because those effects are unknown.

The presence of biological contaminants in pollen is impossible to avoid, difficult to evaluate, and the interpretation of the associated purity data is very subjective.  However, if the evaluation of pollen purity to prepare allergen extracts is properly performed and interpreted, it can benefit the allergen manufacturing companies that produce such extracts.

For example, the presence of a variety of fungal spores, foreign pollen grains, and plant parts in pollen should be expected, and it simply indicates insufficient cleaning. This pollen can be further cleaned and used to produce allergen extracts.

To the contrary, the presence of large amounts of one single spore type, hyphae or sporulating structures indicates that fungi have actively colonized polled due to current or past excessive moisture. Thus, this pollen should be discarded.

The image below describes our proposal to prepare a guidance document to assist the individuals and organizations involved in the evaluation of pollen purity to prepare allergen extracts. Please click the image to see it enlarged.  



Production of allergen extracts

Introduction:

Allergen extracts are biological products used to diagnose and treat allergic diseases. Allergy diagnosis is performed by a careful review of the patient’s medical history, often followed by in vivo and/or in vitro testing, which involve the use of allergen extracts. Allergen avoidance should be the first measure to prevent allergies. However, this approximation is not always possible to implement, and it is not always effective.

Immunotherapy can modulate the immune system and prevent allergies. Medication, is the third alternative to manage allergies because is expensive and does not prevent the immune reaction responsible for allergies. However, medication can relieve allergy symptoms.

Various steps are involved in the production of allergen extracts. These steps include, but are not limited to, the proper selection and procurement of allergenic raw materials, the manufacturing procedures utilized, the quality measures in place to assure that the extracts have a consistent allergen composition and potency, and the measures in use to guarantee a particular shelf-life and expiration date.

The allergens utilized in allergen extracts can be classified as natural or recombinant. The associated materials to produce them are manufactured differently.

Natural allergens have been used for many years in allergen extracts and will continue to be used for the time to come because of the varying limitations regarding the production and use of recombinant allergens. For example, it is currently not possible to obtain recombinant forms of all clinically relevant allergens. In addition, the safety and efficacy of such allergens need to be properly documented through appropriate clinical trials, which takes time and is extremely expensive.

Most catalogs of allergen extracts list pollen, mites, fungi (molds), insects, epithelia (mammalian allergens), hymenoptera venoms, foods, and “others”. Therefore, the procurement of the raw materials to produce those allergen extracts varies, depending on the product.

Natural allergenic raw materials are diverse in origin and have different characteristics. They are obtained from the outdoor environment (i.e. pollen), from laboratory cultures (i.e mites and fungi), animal groomers (i.e. epithelia), or supermarkets (foods).

This is the first post of a series associated with the topic of the production of allergen extracts. In this post, we provide a brief description of the manufacturing steps associated with the manufacturing of extracts. Subsequently, we will address the complex topics of the natural allergenic materials used in the production of allergen extracts as well as their stability and expiration dates.

Steps involved in the production of allergen extracts:

A number of steps are involved in the production of allergen extracts. These steps vary depending on the types of extracts and their intended purpose/s. For example, allergen extracts for in vitro diagnosis are not subjected to the same rigorous quality measures as those for in vivo use. However, a general, overview of the steps involved in the production of allergen extracts is provided below.

Step #1: Once raw materials are received at allergen manufacturing companies, batch records are initiated, and the materials are placed on quarantine. Subsequently, the identity and purity of the raw materials are determined by macroscopic and/or microscopic inspection or by chemical/immunochemical testing.

Step #2: Moisture content in the materials is measured. Subsequently, the materials should be dried, if necessary, to prevent potential microbial growth and product bio-deterioration. Then, raw materials are released and stored until further processing. Ideally, raw materials should be stored frozen to preserve their stability and shelf-life over a given period, as indicated by an expiration date.

Allergen manufacturing companies should have real-time stability protocols in place for different raw material types, according to accepted guidelines.  The information derived from the completion of those studies would likely identify selective expiration dates for different raw materials, as expected due to the intrinsic nature of their allergens.

Step #3: Raw materials are processed to various levels before extraction. The materials are typically washed and defatted with a solvent. Subsequently, they are sieved, milled, and/or powdered, as appropriate.

After raw materials are processed, they are known as “source materials”, which are the products that will be extracted to produce intermediate and/or final extracts. Source materials should also be placed on stability programs.

Step #4: After source materials are extracted, the resulting extracts are clarified, dialyzed, sterile-filtered, mixed with a stabilizing agent (i.e., glycerin), and stored. Allergen extracts are often lyophilized to preserve their integrity. Lyophilized extracts are common intermediate products used for further manufacturing.

Additional activities the Allergen Science & Consulting has been and is performing regarding the production of allergen extracts:

Because pollen is a challenging allergenic material, we have published a paper that exclusively addresses the production of pollen extracts. Please contact us if you would like to receive a copy of this article.

Allergen Science & Consulting is also involved in the preparation and review of a series of articles, entitled “How Allergen Extracts Are Made”, which addresses each type of product individually. We have selected renowned scientists from different countries to contribute to the articles, which are being published sequentially in the Annals of Allergy and Immunology during 2017.

Allergen Extracts on the Market

A large number of allergen extracts for diagnosis and/or treatment of allergies are available on the market. However, the safety and efficacy of many of them are controversial.

In 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluations and Research (CBER), which regulates allergenic products, created a committee to review scientific data about the safety and efficacy of non-standardized allergen extracts.  Such extracts were classified into five categories according to the level of scientific information to justify their use. For example, for pollen, Categories 1, 4, and 5 include 451, 250, and 7 species, respectively.

CBER proposed to remove all products classified in categories 4 and 5 due to safety concerns (Docket #FDA-2011-N-599). While this activity is taking place slowly due to the associated regulatory implications, the number of pollen extracts likely will be reduced to 451 species, all classified in Category 1.  Allergen redundancy and/or cross-reactivity considerations should also indicate which pollen genera and/or species are clinically relevant.

Because of the increasing regulatory requirements regarding allergenic raw materials used in Europe, Lorentz et. al.,in 2009, proposed the concept of “homologous groups” to classify allergen sources. This concept is based on similar biochemical composition and homology/cross-reactivity of allergens or allergen sources.  European regulatory agencies adopted this concept, and now require that allergen manufacturing companies obtain quality data for representative allergen sources classified in each homologous group, seven of which represent pollen species.

European regulatory agencies also have proposed norms to reduce the number of allergenic preparations available on the market. These approximations are analogous in concept to that proposed by CBER in the USA, but are generally more rigorous, and the number of allergen extracts permitted are fewer than those currently available in the USA.

France has stricter regulations regarding allergenic products, and therefore allergen manufacturers must also comply with the demands of the French medical authorities [Agence Française de Sécutité Sanitaire del Produits de Santé (AFSSAPS)]. The AFSSAPS groups aeroallergens in four classes, based on the scientific information currently available, but in an opposite ranking scale as adopted by CBER. Pollen classified in categories 1, 2, 3, and 4 include 24, 2, 7, and 10 species, respectively.

Contact us for more information regarding the topic of this post.

Dog Allergen Extracts

Dog allergen extracts are used to diagnose and treat allergic diseases. Mammalian allergens are present in a variety of sources, and different raw materials are used to produce the derived extracts.  Those materials include dander, hair, epithelium, pelt, skin scrapings, and hides.  However, dander is the most commonly used product.

Because most individuals sensitized to cats react to Fel d 1, standardized extracts to cat allergens are available,  based on particular concentrations of this allergen. On the contrary, a distinctive major dog allergen recognized by the specific IgE of most dog-sensitized individuals has not been identified. Therefore, a large variety of heterogeneous products are on the market.

Several dog allergens, including Can f 1, Can f 2, and Can f 3 have been traditionally considered relevant to particular individuals sensitized to dogs, with Can f 2 (lipocalin) and Can f 3 (albumin) being responsible for cross-reactivity among mammals. More recently, other dog allergens (Can f 4, Can f 5, and Can f 6) have been identified and proven clinically relevant to particular individuals. These allergens also account for cross-reactivity associations.

The fact that major clinically relevant dog allergens that affect most sensitized individuals have not been identified to date, combined with the heterogeneous composition of dog raw materials is responsible for the presence of a number of products on the market with differential diagnostic value. The currently available allergenic preparations are not suitable for immunotherapy.

The intrinsic nature of sensitization to dog allergens is unique, and consistent diagnostic tools are needed. The production of individual dog allergens is an emerging technology with applications for diagnosis and treatment to target specific patient populations.

www.allergenscienceandconsulting.com

Fungal Allergen Extracts

A large number of fungal allergen extracts for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases are available on the market. This can be confusing for the allergist/immunologist to properly select the most clinically relevant extracts.

While the proper selection of the appropriate extracts derived from particular genera and/or species is critical, other factors regarding the materials used to obtain those extracts also play a pivotal role responsible for the quality and consistency of fungal extracts. It is essential for the allergist/immunologist to properly understand those factors because they are ultimately responsible for a large variation in allergen content and potency among extracts of the same species produced by different manufacturers.

Fungi have a high level of genetic adaptability to the environment. They often mutate as a result of external stimuli. Those mutations and the direct effect of environmental conditions are associated with selective allergen production and the potential secretion of secondary metabolites, particularly mycotoxins and polysaccharides. Therefore, when fungi are cultured to manufacture allergen extracts, those factors must be controlled.

For the purpose of manufacturing allergen extracts, the fungal strains used in cultures should be obtained from accredited sources such as the American Type Culture Collection or the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures. The selected strains must be grown under very strict conditions in compliance with specific regulations and general manufacturing guidelines.

The environmental factors responsible for fungal allergen production are many. The most relevant are the specific media formulations and culture conditions used to grow fungi. They are  considered intellectual property that belongs to the allergen manufacturing companies that obtain fungal extracts.

While materials derived from animals or plants are generally used to prepare laboratory culture media, they can potentially be allergenic and/or contain pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, the media used to grow fungi must be carefully formulated to assure its safety.

The common culture conditions are static or under agitation. These conditions are responsible for the amount of oxygen available in the cultures, which affects the types and levels of allergens and secondary metabolites produced.

Once fungal cultures achieve a particular level of maturity, they are harvested and inactivated to assure that no live fungi are present in the materials. Proof on inactivation is required before further processing can be initiated.

The fungal materials used for the production of allergen extracts vary, depending on particular suppliers. Mycelia, culture filtrates, or both can be used to prepare allergen extracts.

Fungal allergen extracts should be obtained from one single reliable supplier. The allergist/immunologist should be aware of the fact that extracts derived from the same genera and species produced by different manufactures are not equivalent in terms of allergen content and potency.

www.allergenscienceandconsulting.com

Natural or Recombinant Allergens

Allergenic materials are used to prepare allergen extracts to diagnose and treat allergic patients. Natural materials have been used for this purpose for many years. 

It is often difficult to obtain sufficient quantities of natural allergenic products. In addition, the safety of those materials is questioned, particularly in Europe, where regulatory entities have proposed guidelines to monitor the quality of these products.

A different perspective regarding natural allergenic products exists in the United States of America (USA). Currently, the Food and Drug Administration in the USA only demands that the quality and safety of the final allergen extracts be assessed. This organization has not yet focused on assessing the quality of the products used to prepare the associated extracts.

Recombinant allergens are alternatives to circumvent the caveats of using natural allergenic materials. While the science of obtaining recombinant allergens is rapidly evolving, natural products most likely will continue to be used for many years to come because of the varying limitations regarding the production and use of recombinant allergens.  For example, it is currently not possible to obtain recombinant forms of all clinically relevant allergens. In addition, the safety and efficacy of such allergens need to be properly documented through appropriate clinical trials, which takes time to complete and is extremely expensive.

We are in a transition period.  Meanwhile, the perspectives regarding the use of natural allergenic products to prepare allergen extracts in the USA and Europe should be harmonized.

www.allergenscienceandconsulting.com